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Ancient Rome was a civilization that began on the Italian peninsula as early as the 8th century B.C. The Roman Empire was considered one of the greatest and most influential empires in history, covering most of continental Europe, parts of western Asia and northern Africa, as well as the Mediterranean islands.
See the fact file below for more information and facts about Ancient Rome and its civilization or download the entire worksheet pack today!
- The history of ancient Rome is divided into three main periods: Before the rise of Rome, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. The Empire is usually divided up according to who was emperor. The Roman Empire lasted for over seven centuries and was probably the largest and most well known.
- The Ancient Romans spoke Latin. Latin influenced many European languages including French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and English. Latin was also the official language of the Catholic Church for many years.
- The first inhabitants of the area that is now Rome lived on Palatine Hill, about one thousand years B.C. Evidence suggests that they were farmers.
The Rise of Rome and the Republic
- When the city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C., legends had it that Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars (god of war), founded Rome. Rome was named after Romulus after he killed his brother and ruled the city.
- They celebrated the feast of Saturnalia in which masters served the slaves. Romans avoided being cruel to slaves.
- In addition, ancient Romans borrowed many things from ancient Greeks, including their gods and goddesses. The Romans just renamed them.
- In 509 B.C., Rome became a republic and showed their power by beginning to conquer most of Italy. The population of Rome reached one million by 50 B.C.
- The Republic of Rome was ruled by 300 senators who were elected to the Senate for life.
- Roman Emperors had a great deal of power and control. They were responsible as the head of the judicial system and courts. They also controlled the Empire’s religion. They were the commander and chief of the military. Augustus Caesar, who instituted the famous Pax Romana (Roman Peace) used the title of Senator, not Emperor.
- In 45 B.C., Caesar became the first dictator of Rome after he defeated Pompey in a civil war.
- People wanted to see him in a strong position of power so that he could solve the problems of crime, hunger, unemployment and taxes.
- One of the laws of the original Twelve Tables was that no general could enter the city with his army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. In 49 B.C., he entered Rome with the Roman
- Legion and took over the government. The Senate was furious. Caesar was assassinated by Marcus Brutus in 44 B.C.
- In ancient Rome, senators were the only people allowed to wear togas edged in purple cloth, and Emperors were the only ones allowed to wear all purple. Instead of crowns, Roman emperors wore laurel leaves on their heads.
- The death of Julius Caesar marked the end of the Roman Republic.
The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
- In 27 B.C., Caesar Augustus became the first Roman Emperor as the empire began.
- By 80 A.D., massive construction and engineering technology flourished in Rome. The Colosseum was built to accommodate an audience of 50,000. Decades later, the Hadrian Wall was erected in Northern England against the barbarians.
- Prior to the conversion of Romans to Christianity led by Emperor Constantine, in 306 A.D., Christians experienced persecution. By 380 A.D., Theodosius I made Christianity the empire’s religion.
- In 410 A.D., Rome was ransacked by tribes from the north. The last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, was defeated by Odoacer in 476 A.D. At that time, the Roman Empire came to an end, while the Dark Ages in Europe began.
Ancient Rome Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Ancient Civilization of Rome across 22 wonderful pages. These are ready-to-use Ancient Rome worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about Ancient Rome which was a civilization that began on the Italian peninsula as early as the 8th century B.C. The Roman Empire was considered one of the greatest and most influential empires in history, covering most of continental Europe, parts of western Asia and northern Africa, as well as the Mediterranean islands.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Ancient Greece Facts
- Where is Ancient Rome?
- Picture Crossword
- Analyze It
- Compare and Contrast
- The First Triumvirate
- Roman Gods and Goddesses
- Roman Legacies
- The Downfall of Rome Storyboard
- Let’s Travel!
- Daily Rome
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